Grid computing is an innovative technology that enables a coordinated use of all resources (including computing, storage and specific applications) that are not subject to centralized control. In this sense it is a new form of distributed computing, where resources can be heterogeneous (different architectures, supercomputers, clusters ...) and are connected by wide area networks (for example Internet). Developed in scientific fields in the early 1990s, they entered the commercial market following the idea of so-called Utility computing is a major revolution. The term grid refers to an infrastructure that allows integration and collective use of high performance computers, networks and databases that are owned and managed by different institutions.
Called grid computing system for sharing resources distributed not geographically centered for solving large scale. Shared resources can be computers (PCs, workstations, supercomputers, PDAs, laptops, phones, etc.), software, data and information, special tools (radio, telescopes, etc..) Or people / employees.
Grid computing offers many advantages over alternative technologies. The power that offer a multitude of networked computers using grid is virtually unlimited, as well as providing seamless integration of heterogeneous systems and devices, so that the connections between different machines will not generate any problems. This is a highly scalable, powerful and flexible, thus bypassing problems of lack of resources (bottlenecks) and never becomes obsolete, because of the possibility of modifying the number and characteristics of its components.
These resources are distributed across the network transparently but keeping safety guidelines and policies for managing both technical and economic. So, your goal will be to share a number of online resources in a uniform, secure, transparent, efficient and reliable, providing a single point of access to a set of geographically distributed resources in different management domains. This can lead us to believe that Grid computing enables the creation of virtual enterprises. It is important to know that a grid is a distributed set of machines that help improve the software work on heavy.
Some features of grid computing are:
- Use of work on network architecture and well-defined protocols.
- You can group virtual teams around the world.
- Requires access controls and security.
- Various institutions can pool their resources to get results.
- The Grid teams located less used and assigned tasks.
- Not all problems can be solved with GRID.
Moreover, this technology gives companies the benefit of speed, giving it a competitive advantage, thereby providing improved times for the production of new products and services.
Makes it easy to share, access and manage information through collaboration and operational flexibility, combining technological resources not only diverse, but also people and different skills. Another aspect is that it tends to increase productivity by giving end users access to computing resources, storage and data they need, when needed.
With respect to security in the grid, it is supported with the "intergrids" where that security is the same Lan network offering which is used on grid technology.
The parallel may be seen as a problem, since a parallel machine is very expensive. But if we have availability of a set of heterogeneous machines small or medium size, whose combined computing power is sufficiently large, distributed systems that would generate very low cost, high computing power.
Grid computing needs to maintain its structure, different services such as Internet connections, 24 hours, 365 days, bandwidth, server capacity, security, VPN, firewalls, encryption, secure communications, security policies, ISO and some more features ... Without all these functions and features can not speak of Grid Computing.
Fault tolerance means that if one of the machines that make up the grid collapses, the system recognizes it and the task is forwarded to another machine, which is fulfilled in order to create flexible and robust operational infrastructures.
Applications of Grid Computing
Currently, there are five general applications for Grid Computing:
Applications are those whose needs can not be met in a single node. The needs occur at certain instants of time and resource intensive.
Real-time distributed systems.
These are applications that generate a flow of high-speed data to be analyzed and processed in real time.
This does not take into account the computing power and storage capacity, but the resources that an organization can be considered unnecessary. Grid represents the organization resources.
Data intensive process.
These are applications that make heavy use of storage space. Such applications go beyond the storage capacity of a single node and the data are distributed throughout the grid. In addition to the benefits due to the increase of space, the data distribution along the grid allows access to them in a distributed manner.
Collaborative virtual environments.
Area associated with the concept of tele-immersion, so as to use the vast resources of grid computing and distributed nature to produce distributed 3D virtual environments.